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Beyond Corporate Social Responsibility in .NET Create Quick Response Code in .NET Beyond Corporate Social Responsibility

Beyond Corporate Social Responsibility Using Barcode maker for VS .NET Control to generate, create QR Code ISO/IEC18004 image in VS .NET applications. ean8 In a number of oil .NET QR -producing countries, socially responsive oil companies appear to have been favoured by the government in the award of oil and gas concessions. For instance, Chevron in Angola appears to have strategically used its social investments in its bid to renew its stake in Block 0, Angola s most prized oil asset (see 5 for more details).

The Chevron-Angola example demonstrates that corporate expertise in managing social and environmental issues can be used as a proactive weapon in global competition. Oil companies from emerging economies The CSR strategies of oil companies from emerging economies are far less well-documented than those by Shell or Exxon, so it is more difficult to trace their evolution. The strategies of these companies are also likely to be different because they are fully or partially government-owned.

Kuwait Petroleum and Venezuela s PDVSA are 100 per cent government-owned. The Indian government holds just over 80 per cent of Indian Oil shares, while the Brazilian Government controls 57 per cent of the voting shares of Petrobras. Given that the government is the key shareholder/stakeholder in all of the four companies, it can use the companies to advance its own agenda, sometimes at the expense of minority shareholders.

Indeed, many of the social and environmental strategies of the four companies can be explained as a result of government policy. This can help to explain the oil companies emphasis on contributions to the local social and economic development. To a varying extent, all four companies have been expected to contribute towards national infrastructure development, including road and hospital construction, agricultural initiatives, and skills development.

Indeed, local community development (or philanthropy in Western terms) is considered the central part of social responsibility for Indian Oil, PDVSA and Petrobras. Indeed, the government influenced the very meaning of socially responsible in respective countries. From its inception, Kuwait.

The logic of CSR strategies Petroleum was expe .NET framework Denso QR Bar Code cted to help in the development of the country s infrastructure as part of its responsibilities; however, over time the government took on many of its previous infrastructure responsibilities and redefined the company s primary social responsibility as driving economic growth and employing local staff. In Venezuela, the government did the opposite.

Before 2002, PDVSA was largely seen as a commercial entity with the primary responsibility of generating economic benefits for the country. President Chavez redefined the social responsibilities of PDVSA from 2002 and (in the words of one interviewee) turned PDVSA into a social change agent . Accordingly, the influence of government can explain the fact that the social strategies of PDVSA after 2002 have been idiosyncratic by international standards (in the words of one interviewee); for instance, PDVSA helped to establish and fund rural co-operatives (a Marxist-influenced idea).

Similarly in Brazil, Petrobras pursued certain social and environmental strategies as a result of government pressures. For instance, Petrobras previously made investments in thermoelectric projects as a result of the Brazilian Government s plans in 2000 1; the projects turned out to be loss making, and the company then attempted to reduce its investments over the course of several years. In all of these cases, stakeholder pressure (the government) can explain the companies social and environmental strategies.

Government pressure can also explain the big differences between the social and environmental strategies in the different companies after all, the different governments have very different agendas. In summary, stakeholder theory can explain many of the social and environmental strategies of state-owned companies. However, there is evidence that stakeholder pressures from the government have become less important for the different state-owned companies over time, except for PDVSA.

Most notably, Indian Oil has undergone a major transformation over the last decade or so; in the 1970s, the Indian government specified a twenty-point economic.
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